Endocarditis caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis

Maryam Rafiee, Fatemeh Nemati Shahri, Omid Pouresmaeil, Reza Ahmadi, Reyhaneh Noorizadeh, Jalal Mardaneh


Mycobacterium tuberculosis (TB) is a worldwide danger to human health, with the potential to spread to all parts of the body, including the heart. Tuberculous endocarditis (TBE) is a rare form of tuberculosis that is often associated with miliary TB and the replacement of an infected prosthetic or native valve. Despite advances in the diagnosis of tuberculosis, extrapulmonary tuberculosis remains a challenge due to its difficulty in diagnosis. In most cases, TBE is only detected post-mortem. In order to better manage TBE in the future, there is a need to accelerate and develop more accurate diagnostic methods. This review paper looks at the literature on TBE from 1970 to 2021. The diagnosis of TBE is complicated by the fact that the symptoms can vary greatly depending on the individual, and the disease can remain asymptomatic for long periods of time. The most common symptoms of TBE include fever, fatigue, joint pain, and an irregular heartbeat. Other symptoms can include chest pain, shortness of breath, and swelling of the extremities. Diagnosis is often made through a combination of physical examination, laboratory tests, and imaging. Treatment usually involves a combination of antibiotics and surgery. In some cases, valve replacement may be necessary. It is important to note that the prognosis of TBE is variable and depends on the individual's overall health, the stage of the disease, and the type of treatment received. Better management of TBE in the future requires acceleration and evolution of diagnostic methods. In this study, we review the literature on TBE from 1970 to 2021.

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