Domestic violence and its related risk factors among women attending infertility clinic in North of Iran

Fatemeh Alijani, Afsaneh Keramat, Zeinab Hamzeh Gardeshi, Ahmad Khosravi, Mansoureh Afzali, Fatemeh Habibi


Infertility is associated with emotional problems, marital distress and domestic violence (DV). It might have a substantial consequence on women, families, and society as a whole. This study was conducted to determine the prevalence of domestic violence and its related risk factors among infertile women in the north of Iran. A total of 379 infertile women between October 2015 and March 2016 were included in the current study, using consecutive sampling. Socio-demographic characteristics were assessed via a structured questionnaire. The Revised Conflict Tactics Scale (CTS2) was used to evaluate domestic violence. The data were statistically analyzed and a P <0.05 was considered as the significance level for all tests. Of 379 infertile women, 88.9% reported domestic violence. Psychological violence was the most common type of violence. There were no significant relationships found between violence and women’s educational status, men’s jobs, place of residence, alcohol consumption, and drug addiction. Men smoking and women with younger age were risk factors of violence against women (P <0.05). The prevalence of domestic violence is considerably high in Sari, Iran. Being a smoker and having a younger age may increase violence against infertile women. Health staff should identify at-risk women and support them and their husbands via educational programs and counseling.


Domestic violence, infertility, women, prevalence, risk factors

Full Text:



Zegers-Hochschild F, Adamson GD, Mouzon J, Ishihara O, Mansour R, Nygren K, et al. International Committee for Monitoring Assisted Reproductive Technology (ICMART) and the World Health Organization (WHO) revised glossary of ART terminology. Fertil Steril 92:1520-1524, 2009.

Mascarenhas MN, Flaxman SR, Boerma T, Vanderpoel S, Stevens GA. National, regional, and global trends in infertility prevalence since 1990: a systematic analysis of 277 health surveys. PLoS Med 2012; 9:e1001356. doi: 10.1371/journal.pmed.1001356.

Boivin J, Bunting L, Collins J A, Nygren K G. International estimates of infertility prevalence and treatment seeking: potential need and demand for infertility medical care. Hum Reprod 22:1506-1512, 2007.

Kazemijaliseh H, Ramezani Tehrani F, Behboudi-Gandevani S, Hosseinpanah F, Khalili D, Azizi F. The prevalence and causes of primary infertility in Iran: A population-based study. Glob J Health Sci 7:226-232, 2015.

Akhondi M M, Kamali K, Ranjbar F, Shirzad M, Shafeghati S, Behjati ardakani Z, et al. Prevalence of primary infertility in Iran in 2010. Iran J Public Health 42:1398-1404, 2013.

World Health Organization. Gender and Genetics: Assisted Reproductive Technologies (ARTs) (2015). Accessed November 25.

Dyer S J, Abrahams N, Mokoena N E, Lombard C J, van der Spuy Z M. Psychological distress among women suffering from couple infertility in South Africa: a quantitative assessment. Hum Reprod 20:1938-1943, 2005.

Ardabily H E, Moghadam Z B, Salsali M, Ramezanzadeh F, Nedjat S. Prevalence and risk factors for domestic violence against infertile women in an Iranian setting. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 112:15-17, 2011.

Yildizhan R, Adali E, Kolusari A, Kurdoglu M, Yildizhan B, Sahin G. Domestic violence against infertile women in a Turkish setting. Int J Gynecol Obstet 104: 110-112, 2009.

World Health Organization. Violence against women: fact sheet N°239. Geneva: (2016). [updated Nov 2014;cited 2015 Apr] Available from:


Stellar C, Garcia-Moreno C, Temmerman M, van der Poe S. A systematic review and narrative report of the relationship between infertility, subfertility, and intimate partner violence. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 133:3-8, 2016.

Sami N, Ali TS. Domestic violence against infertile women in Karachi, Pakistan. Asian Rev Soc Sci 1:15-20, 2012.

Pasi A, Hanchate M, Pasha M. Infertility and domestic violence: Cause, consequence and management in Indian scenario. Biomed Res 22:255-258, 2011.

Behboodi Moghadam, Z, Eftekhar Ardabily H, Salsali M, Ramezanzadeh F, Nedjat S. Physical and psychological violence against infertile women. J Family Reprod Health 4:65-67, 2010.

Farzadi L, Ghasemzadeh A, Bahrami Asl Z, Mahinib M, Shirdel H. Intimate partner violence against infertile women, J Clin Res Gov 4:147-151, 2014.

Sheikhan Z, Ozgoli G, Azar M, Alavimajd H. Domestic violence in Iranian infertile women. Med J Islam Repub Iran 28:152, 2014.

Straus MA, Hamby SL, Boney-McCoy S, Sugarman DB. The revised conflict tactics scales (CTS2) development and preliminary psychometric data. J Fam Issues 17:283-316, 1996.

Iliyasu Z, Galadanci H S, Abubakar S, Auwal M S, Odoh C, Salihu H M, et al. Phenotypes of intimate partner violence among women experiencing infertility in Kano, northwest Nigeria. Int J Gynaecol Obstet 133:32-36, 2016.

Akyüz A, Şahiner G, Seven M, Bakır B. The effect of marital violence on infertility distress among a sample of Turkish women. Int J Fertil Steril 8: 67-76, 2014.

Abadi M P, Mahdavi S, Esmaeili K, Amighi M, Hashemian AH. The amount of domestic violence in Kermanshahi (a provincial center in west Iran) women given birth in 2011-2012. WJMMSR 11:202-206, 2014.

Ameh N, Kene TS, Onuh SO, Okohue JE, Umeora OU, Anozie OB. Burden of domestic violence amongst infertile women attending infertility clinics in Nigeria. Niger J Med 16:375-377, 2007.

Guruge S, Roche B, Catallo C. Violence against women: An exploration of the physical and mental health trends among immigrant and refugee women in Canada. Nurs Res Pract Volume 2012: Article ID 434592, 2012.

Faramarzi M, Esmailzadeh S, & Mosavi S. Prevalence and determinants of intimate partner violence in babol city, Islamic Republic of Iran. East Mediterr Health J 11:870-879, 2005.

Parish WL, Wang T, Laumann E O, Pan S, & Luo Y. Intimate partner violence in China: national prevalence, risk factors and associated health problems. Int Fam Plan Perspect 30: 174–181, 2004.

Dosary AH. Health impact of domestic violence against Saudi women: Cross sectional study, Int J Health Sci (Qassim) 10:166-173, 2016.

Sinha A, Mallik S, Sanyal D, Dasgupta S, Pal D, Mukherjee A. Domestic violence among evermarried women of reproductive age group in a slum area of Kolkata, Indian J Public Health 56:31-36, 2012.

Akyuz A, Seven M, Şahiner G, Bakır B. Studying The Effect of Infertility on Marital Violence in Turkish Women. Int J Fertil Steril 6: 286-293, 2013.

Abbaspoor Z & Momtazpour M. Domestic Violence and Its Related Factors Based a Prevalence Study in Iran, Glob J Health Sci 8:1-7, 2016.

Aklimunnessa K, Khan M, Kabir M, Mori M. Prevalence and correlates of domestic violence by husbands against wives in Bangladesh: evidence from a national survey, J Men's Health & Gen 4:5263, 2007.

Dalal K, Rahman F, Jansson B. Wife abuse in rural Bangladesh. J Biosoc Sci 41:561-4573, 2009.


  • There are currently no refbacks.